Each July, the entire city of Avignon turns into a gorgeous giant theatre. Founded in 1947, it today has two strands, the main festival (the "In") and the fringe (the "Off"). The date of the 2015 "In" is 4-25 July. The "Off" is 4-26 July.
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Since 2014 the Director of the main Festival d'Avignon has been the flamboyant actor-director-playwright-musician Olivier Py. It's the first time the post has been held by an artist since Jean Vilar, the founder of the festival, who ran it from 1947 to 1971.
Py was previously sacked from a successful tenure at the Théâtre de l'Odéon in Paris in 2011, amid some controversy. A convert to Catholicism and openly gay, he was offered the directorship in Avignon for four years, taking over from Hortense Archambault and Vincent Baudriller, who jointly ran it for ten years.
Py declared that he wanted a political festival, and he certainly got it. He triggered a furore almost immediately when the far-right Front National party seemed about to win control of Avignon in local elections.
Py, pictured, declared that, if that happened, he would be forced to hold the festival elsewhere, attracting much criticism from both the left and the right (in the event, the Front National lost out to the Socialist Party). That wasn't the end of his troubles.
In 2014 both the In and the Off Avignon theatre festivals (like other cultural festivals all across France) were threatened by strike action from les intermittents du spectacle, part-time arts workers protesting against proposed cuts to their unemployment benefits. In 2003 the Avignon and Aix festivals were cancelled altogether due to a similar situation.
That didn't happen again in 2014. But the opening night of Avignon's main festival was cancelled and the colourful procession that traditionally launches the Off festival was replaced by a sombre silent march.
Bad weather caused further disruptions and, by the end of the month, over a dozen performances in the In had been either cancelled or interrupted and the festival had made a loss of nearly 300,000 €uros
In 2015 Py has been forced to shorten the festival by two days and five key venues will be unavailable to him for various reasons (the iconic Palais des Papes will still be at the centre of the event, however). The budget deficit currently being faced by the city of Avignon itself has led to a subsidy cut too.
But Py has come back fighting with his programme. It features 47 productions including 26 international and six French premieres. The Festival opens with his own production of King Lear - which he personally translated - in the Palais des Papes. Py also presents Hacia La Alegría, a one-man-show about an architect roaming the city at night.
The stellar German director Thomas Ostermeier, a regular in Avignon, returns with another Shakespeare play, Richard III, while Angelin Preljocaj - the choreographer-in-residence at the Pavillon Noir in Aix en Provence - will present Retour à Berratham (Return to Berratham) by Laurent Mauvignier. A world premiere, the piece, inspired by The Iliad, tells of a solider who returns home after a war.
Dance is strongly represented: Hofesh Shechter, the Israeli choreographer based in London, brings a new work, Barbarians.
Other highlights are likely to be the renowned Polish director Krystian Lupa with a project inspired by Thomas Bernhard's novel Woodcutters. And Russia's Kirill Serebrennikov is bringing a play based on The Idiots, the controversial film by Lars von Trier in which people create embarrassment by pretending to be mentally retarded.
Among the star performers are Isabelle Huppert, who will read texts by the Marquis de Sade, and Fanny Ardant in a "spoken opera" called Cassandra.
Patrice Chéreau, the revered theatre and film director who died in 2013, will be honoured in an exhibition at the restored, expanded and newly reopened Collection Lambert. The full programme is announced in mid-May.
Let's wish the festival well, because in other respects the 2014 edition was viewed as a resounding success. Py stated that his main ambition was to attract more young theatre-goers and, to that end, he wished to place a greater emphasis on emerging talent rather than on well-known names.
Eleven of Py's 36 guest directors were under 35, including Thomas Jolly, whose ambitious, 18-hour version of Shakespeare's entire Henry VI cycle - presented in one marathon block punctuated by seven intervals - was the festival's major critical hit.
Theatre-goers under 26 were able to see four shows for 40 €uros (i.e. 10 €uros each) and similar bargain multiple tickets - at a slightly higher rate - were available to all comers. This offer will apply again in 2015. There was also a popular new children's section, which continues in 2015 with three productions.
Like the organisers of the Festival d'Aix classical music festival, Py wanted to popularise his programme, defend it against accusations of elitism and move the festival outside the walled city to working-class areas in Greater Avignon.
His policy - which continues in 2015 - was to invite fewer production but to run them for more performances in order to enable more people to see them. Blocks of seats were held back for sale during the festival, so that if you arrived half-way through July you wouldn't find all the shows sold out.
The main Festival d'Avignon was founded in France's heady post-war years by Vilar, with a production of Shakespeare's Richard II - a play then relatively little-known in France - in the Cours d'Honneur, the vast inner courtyard of the Palais des Papes (pictured).
Aiming to make culture more widely accessible, Vilar acted as the Festival d'Avignon's Artistic Director until his death in 1971.
His work, and the history of the festival, are celebrated in a museum in Avignon, the Maison Jean Vilar.
Today the Festival d'Avignon forms a quartet of midsummer arts festivals in Provence alongside the Festival d'Aix (classical music), the a-part Festival of Contemporary Art in the Alpilles and the Rencontres d'Arles (photography).
Unlike the three other festivals, Avignon suffers, of course, from the handicap of language. Though the city is in the heart of one of the most popular regions in Europe for English-speaking tourists, the Festival d'Avignon has admitted in the past to difficulties in attracting these.
The festival has been attempting to combat this by including a generous component of visually-oriented events as well as by inviting English-speaking artists and providing an English-language newsletter and multi-lingual synopses to many of the productions.
The spectacular setting of the Cours d'Honneur, which can accommodate 2,000 spectators, is still the festival's principal focus, though today it spills over into several dozen other venues all over - and around - the walled city.
A rich mix of theatre, dance, comedy, film and mime, the Festival d'Avignon premieres many new works and productions, a number of which later go on to tour nationally and internationally: around two-thirds of them are either French or international premieres. Pictured: Juliette Binoche and Nicolas Bouchard in August Strindberg's Miss Julie at the 2011 Avignon Festival.
Running roughly concurrently, the Festival du Off in Avignon was established over 30 years ago. It's one of the largest independent theatre festivals in the world, comparable in size to the Edinburgh Fringe. And it's also an important showcase for independent theatre companies to secure national bookings for their new productions over the coming year.
Unlike the main festival, which invites and subsidises a select handful of top-flight international companies, the Off is open to anyone who can fund and find a venue for their production.
In 2013 over a thousand companies attended Avignon's Off Festival, staging 1,265 shows. More than a million tickets were sold. In 2014 the number of shows rose to over 1,300 but, like the main festival, the Off was badly hit by the arts workers' strike and ticket sales were down. About the same number of shows are expected in 2015.
The Off Festival kicks off with an opening procession through the centre of Avignon on 3 July. In the following weeks, the visiting actors stage their shows and spectacles anywhere they can: churches, schools, shops, museums, open-air cloisters and not least the streets.
These venues are dotted all over town and there's been an increasing effort to reach out to the outlying suburbs, though the heart of the Off remains around the picturesque rue des Teinturiers.
In this area you can also find the big air-conditioned circus tent which acts as the headquarters of Avignon's Off Festival. Here you can buy tickets, get a copy of the programme, attend debates, listen to live music in the early evening and, most importantly, hang out in the festival bar.
The main Festival d'Avignon is based at the Cloître Saint-Louis, a 17th century monastery converted into a hotel (pictured left). Cloître Saint Louis, 20 rue du Portail Boquier, 84000 Avignon. Tel: (+33) 4 90 27 66 50 Website for the Festival d'Avignon
Tickets go on sale online in mid-June. You then pick them up later at the Cloître Saint-Louis or, immediately prior to the performance, at the venue itself. If you are in France, Belgium or Switzerland, you can also buy tickets for the Festival d'Avignon at the chain of FNAC music and book stores.
The Festival du Off is based at Ecole Thiers, 1 rue des Ecoles, 84000 Avignon. Tickets are also on sale at the Avignon Tourist Office (41, cours Jean-Jaurès), Monoprix department store (24 rue de la République) and the Town Hall (l'Hôtel de Ville, place de l'Horloge). Website for the Off Festival
By showing your theatre ticket at the monuments and museums in Avignon and Villeneuve lès Avignon, you can benefit from the special "Avignon Passion Pass" price which offers reduced admission. Information at the Tourist Office.
Another attractive deal is generally offered by the Off Festival. If you buy a pass for a modest subscription, you are entitled to 30% off ticket prices to every Off show as well as discounts on trains and local transport and reduced-price admission to the Palais des Papes and many of Avignon's other tourist sights. This deal is available again in 2015.
Click here for our full guide to the best places to eat in Avignon, from Michelin-starred gastronomic restaurants to great-value informal brasseries.
Click here to book a hotel in Avignon
Accommodation is at an absolute premium during the festival, especially if you are planning to be in Avignon on or around Bastille Day (14 July), which is a national holiday in France. Hotel prices can rise by up to a third during July and become even more expensive than Paris. Be sure to pre-book a room.
It is worth considering staying just outside the walled city, on the large Piot and Barthelasse Islands in the middle of the Rhône river or in nearby Villeneuve lès Avignon. Click here for more suggestions for where to stay in Avignon.
If you read French, it's worth trying the Off Festival site's French-language page of classified ads, which usually has offers of accommodation.
And if you are unwise enough to arrive without a reservation, the Tourist Office maintains a daily list of available vacancies for you to try your chances on the spot.
Finally, car drivers should note that much of the walled inner city is pedestrianised for the duration of the two festivals.