Aix's Festival of Lyric Art is one of the cultural highlights of the year in Provence and its open-air performances in the balmy midsummer nights are magical occasions.
Click here to book a hotel in Aix en Provence
Since 2007, the Director of the Festival international d'art lyrique d'Aix en Provence - to give it its full name - has been the Belgian organist, composer and opera director Bernard Foccroulle. The dates of the 2016 Festival d'Aix are 30 June-20 July.
The Festival has flourished under Foccroulle's lead and his appointment has been renewed until 2017. Click here for the website for the Festival d'Aix.
At the end of 2015 Monsieur Foccroulle announced that he would not be reapplying for the Directorship when his current tenure expires in order to devote more time to his own projects.
Aix also has a packed programme of concerts. And, just to keep the music going all summer, the city has more mini music events in June and August: Aix en Juin, Les Nuits Pianistiques and Musique dans la Rue.
THE FESTIVAL D'AIX IN 2016
At the 2016 Aix en Provence Music Festival, the British director Katie Mitchell will present Debussy's Pelléas et Mélisande, with Stéphane Degout and Barbara Hannigan in the title roles and Esa-Pekka Salonen conducting.
Mitchell is a regular in Aix, having directed Handel's Alcina here in 2015, Vasco Mendonça's The House Taken Over in 2013 and George Benjamin's Written on Skin in 2012, pictured.
Peter Sellars, who in 2015 directed Tchaikovsky's Iolanta and Stravinsky's Persephone, is also back in 2016 with Stravinsky's Oedipus Rex and Symphony of Psalms, conducted by Salonen.
And in 2017 the third and last Stravinsky production to be staged at the Festival will be The Rake's Progress.
The obligatory Mozart opera is entrusted to Christophe Honoré in 2016: it's Così fan tutte with Lenneke Ruiten, Kate Lindsey and Sandrine Piau. The conductors are Louis Langrée and Jérémie Rhorer and the opera will be set in "colonial Africa".
Aix's current cycle of operas by Handel continues with Il Trionfo del Tempo et del Disinganno, directed by Krzysztof Warlikowski and sung by Sabine Devieilhe, Sara Mingardo, Franco Fagioli and Michael Spyres. The conductor is Emmanuelle Haim.
Jean-Philippe Rameau's Zoroastre will be presented in a concert version.
Two new works were commissioned by the Festival. Moneim Adwan has created an opera called Kalila wa Dimna, which is based on Indian fables about animals and will be sung in French and Arabic.
However in February it was suddenly announced that the second commission has had to be postponed to 2018 for budgetary reasons. It was to have been an a cappella opera called Seven Stones by Ondrej Adámek based on a text by the Icelandic poet Sjón (one of Björk's regular collaborators).
There is also a busy programme of concerts and recitals.
The Festival d'Aix has a reputation of being aimed at a moneyed elite, and there's certainly some truth in this. Ticket prices for the flagship opera productions can easily run to several hundred €uros (though that didn't stop performances from playing to over 93% capacity in 2015).
However there are also plenty of free and low-cost spectacles too and a hot tip for younger visitors is Le PASS, available from the Festival box-office, which gives free access to almost 50 events for anyone under the age of 30. Music-lovers over 30 can buy Le PASS for 15 €uros.
A further offshoot of the aim to broaden the Festival's audiences are projects to transmit some performances live by satellite to international venues, as well as to stage others in venues outside the centre of Aix.
And if you are in Aix outside the main Festival dates, don't worry about missing out. Since 2013 the city has held a curtain-raising event, Aix en Juin, which offers a programme of some two dozen concerts and masterclasses.
Aimed at locals but open to everyone, many of these are either free, or free if you buy Le PASS. They're held both in the city centre and at atmospheric venues in the surrounding area, including the Fondation Vasarely and the beautiful Abbaye de Silvacane.
Aix en Juin reaches its climax with Parade[s], a very popular - and free - open-air promenade concert, pictured, on the Cours Mirabeau, just before the start of the Festival d'Aix proper.
In 2016 it will be given on 26 June by the chorus of the Cape Town Opera and will feature a mix of American gospel songs, traditional African chants and work from the lyric repertoire. Click here for the full programme.
Soon after the main Festival ends there's yet more music again. A programme of piano concerts by top international performers, Les Nuits Pianistiques, starts in early August. Modestly priced, they're at the city's brand new music academy building, the Conservatoire Darius Milhaud. Website for Les Nuits Pianistiques in Aix en Provence.
Also organised by the Conservatoire, Musique dans la rue (Music in the Street) is a series of over a hundred free open-air concerts all across town in the early evening at the very end of August.
There's music in the courtyard of the Town Hall, on the place Jeanne d'Arc at the bottom of the Cours Mirabeau, on dozens of café terraces and more locations in the centre of Aix and in outlying villages. All kinds of sounds are represented from baroque and classical to jazz and Latin vibes.
Under the artistic directorship of the violinist Renaud Capuçon, this new event, first launched in 2013, has very quickly gone from strength to strength. It already attracts artists of international calibre and is expanding its activities into a range of venues all across town.
The 2016 programme spotlighted the art of the violin, with many world-class musicians, notably the great, 92-year-old Israeli violinist Ivry Gitlis. He'll be performing alongside the likes of Martha Argerich, Khatia Buniatishvili, Renaud Capuçon, Guillaume Chilemme, Maxim Vengerov, Adrien La Marca and Edgar Moreau.
Also on the menu: the Budapest Festival Orchestra, Paul Lewis, Yo-Yo Ma, Emmanuel Pahud and more. Click here for the website of the Aix Easter Festival.
A THUMBNAIL HISTORY
The first Aix Festival took place in an extraordinary cultural landscape. France was on her knees in the aftermath of the Second World War and fighting to regain her identity and self-respect with a stream of prestigious new arts events.
The Cannes Film Festival was created in 1946; Avignon followed in 1947. And in 1948 Gabriel Dussurget, a music enthusiast from Paris, joined forces with Countess Lily Pastré, a remarkable woman who had sheltered dozens of dissident, mainly Jewish musicians and artists at the Château Pastré, her estate in Marseille, during the war.
After the war Dussurget persuaded the wealthy Countess to finance an opera and classical music festival in Aix, then a lovely but quiet backwater known as the region's Sleeping Beauty.
A minor scandal was created by the opening line-up on a pocket handkerchief stage in the great open-air courtyard of the former Archevêché (the mediaeval Archbishop's Palace, pictured ) next to the Cathedral in the Old Town of Aix en Provence.
It featured a German orchestra (Südwestfunk), an Austrian conductor (Hans Rosbaud) and an opera, Cosi fan tutte, by another of Hitler's countrymen, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
But there could be few more beautiful ways of celebrating the healing and unifying power of music, and WAM has been a cornerstone of the Festival ever since.
Sets and production designs from past festivals are on display in the Musée des Tapisseries within the Archbishop's Palace.
Today, for over three weeks each July, the Festival d'Aix still takes over virtually the whole city, forming a quartet of midsummer arts festivals in Provence alongside the Festival d'Avignon (theatre), the a-part Festival of Contemporary Art in the Alpilles, a relative newcomer, and the Rencontres d'Arles (photography).
The Archbishop's Palace remains the iconic venue for the Festival d'Aix, but it also spills over to many other locations, from the Grand Théâtre de Provence, the Théâtre du Jeu de Paume and the Hôtel Maynier d'Oppède to the place des Quatre Dauphins in the Mazarin Quarter and even the Cours Mirabeau.
The beauty and variety of settings on offer are one of the Festival's most potent attractions. Added to that, the compactness of the inner city lends an intimacy to the event.
Numerous international figures have appeared at the Festival d'Aix, including Peter Brook - who directed a memorable Don Giovanni there in 1998 - the dance choreographer Pina Bausch and the conductor Simon Rattle.
Among the guests in recent years have been the Canadian Robert Lepage, whose remarkable, waterlogged production of Stravinsky's The Nightingale, pictured, was a highlight in 2010 and went on to tour venues worldwide. South Africa's William Kentridge was the guest of honour in 2011 and Britain's George Benjamin topped the bill in 2012.
The Festival d'Aix is based at the former Archevêché (Archbishop's Palace), place de l'Ancien Archevêché, 13100 Aix en Provence. Website for the Festival d'Aix. Telephone, if calling from abroad: (+33) 4 34 08 02 17. Telephone, if calling from within France: 08 20 92 29 23.
The full Festival line-up is available to view online on 25 January and tickets go on sale online, by phone or at the Archevêché itself at this time.
The Festival d'Aix offers several special packages, such as a free child's ticket for every accompanying adult at certain shows. Check the Festival website for details of what's on offer this year.
Click here to book a hotel in Aix en Provence
Accommodation is at an absolute premium during the Festival, especially if you are planning to be in Aix on or around Bastille Day (14 July), which is a public holiday in France. Be sure to reserve well in advance. Click here for tips on where to stay in Aix en Provence and here for tips on where to eat.