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And today the Old Port is still a favourite spot for both locals and tourists to stroll, drink, eat, argue, fall in love, buy (or sell) fish, listen to music, peddle sunglasses and generally hang out and enjoy life.
What's more the city centre had a major makeover in 2013, when Marseille was the hub of the European Capital of Culture. The result has been to make the Old Port even more of a social focus.
A THUMBNAIL HISTORY
Marseille was founded as a trading port in 600 BC by Greeks from Phocaea in Asia Minor - now part of Turkey - making it the oldest town in France. To this day it still bears the proud ancient nickname La Cité phocéenne.
At the time the area was inhabited by a Celto-Ligurian people. According to a tale related by the Greek philosopher Aristotle and the Roman historian Justin, Protis, a young Greek sailor exploring the coast, landed in the bay and was promptly invited to a banquet by the local Ligurian chieftain.
It so happened that the purpose of the banquet was for Gyptis, the chieftain's daughter, to select a mate.
She fell in love at first sight with the Greek newcomer, and they were married. Her dowry was a piece of the land where Marseille now stands.
It's a romantic myth, but also an emblematic one. This city has a very long tradition of welcoming and assimilating immigrants and newcomers, and it continues to this day.
The port became Roman, then medieval, expanding along the northern shores. In 1666, on the orders of Louis XIV, the city began to be developed southwards and two fortresses were built on either side of the harbour entrance. The Canebière, Marseille's most famous boulevard, was also begun during this era.
It became an iconic feature of the Marseille skyline. But it was weakened by Nazi bombing in 1944 and had to be destroyed after the Second World War. Every now and then the city makes noises about building a new bridge, but nothing has come of the talk so far!
Today the Old Port, just six metres / 20 feet deep, is unable to accommodate commercial marine traffic and the parade of large cruise ships which arrive daily during the summer. These ply in and out of the nearby port of Joliette.
The Vieux Port is now the largest of the city's marinas, with thousands of berths. Traditional fishing boats, or pointus, vie for them alongside huge, swanky yachts, a handful of tall ships and common-or-garden motor launches.
WHERE TO GO AND WHAT TO SEE
The U-shaped Old Port is lined by restaurants and cafés: the former are mostly arrayed along the northern quai du Port and the latter along the southern quai de Rive Neuve. This said, a cluster of bars have more recently sprung up on the quai du Port too.
The shortest side of the port has kept changing its name through the centuries. Since 2000, it is, slightly confusingly, called the quai de la Fraternité on the side nearest the harbour and quai des Belges on the side nearest the town.
This is where to find the boat shuttles to the Château d'If, to Pointe Rouge and to L'Estaque as well as the boat companies offering excursions to the calanques. In the mornings there is a small, lively fish market.
In 2013 this stretch of the Old Port became semi-pedestrianised as part of a big redevelopment project designed by the British architect Norman Foster to open up the space for bars and restaurants, vendors and public events.
Part of the southern end is shielded by a dramatic and very photogenic large, stainless steel mirrored sun canopy, pictured. Designed by Norman Foster, it's a favourite spot for selfies.
A ferry boat service crosses the harbour every few minutes between the Town Hall (L'Hôtel de ville) on the quai du Port and the Bar de la Marine on the quai de Rive Neuve. It's a handy short-cut across the port - even if it's frequently not running!
The Canebière, Marseille's main thoroughfare, runs at right angles off the quai des Belges. Built in 1666, its name comes from canebe, a provençal word for the hemp grown in the port area and used to make ships' rigging. Inevitably, British sailors referred to the street as the "can o' beer".
This boulevard became the glamorous centre of Marseille's vibrant café society: in the 19th century there were over 280 cafés in the city.
Many grand hotels along the Canebière catered to the commercial travellers and wealthy tourists passing through the port, which was then the largest on the Mediterraneanand the gateway to the Orient.
You can still see some of these sumptuous façades on the Canebière. One of the finest is the former Grand Hotel du Louvre et de la Paix at no. 53 (now a C&A clothing store).
Its four caryatyds represent the four continents of Europe, Asia, Africa and (lumped together) the two Americas.
Mark Twain once spent the night here and the Lumière Brothers organised an early public screening of their pioneering films.
Look out, too, for the former Grand Hotel at no. 26-28 (now a police station). Laurel and Hardy stayed on the Canebière too while making a film in Marseille (really!) in 1951. This postcard depicts the Canebière in the 1920s.
Today many of these cafés and almost all the hotels on the Canebière have closed and the street has become rather down-at-heel and long overdue for a facelift.
However in 2017 things really liven up here on the last Sunday of every month. On that day the Canebière is pedestrianised to make way for a big street party. The next "Dimanche de la Canebière" is on 30 April.
Over 40 free activities are planned including parades, performance art and theatre, music, movies, a provençal market, games for families, gourmet food trucks and all sorts of other goodies. Click here for more details (in French only).
Most of the action takes place between 10am and 5pm and many thousands of visitors are expected. Drivers, note that a number of streets in the surrounding area are closed to traffic.
This lavishly subsidised shindig is financed by the local town hall to revitalise the centre of Marseille, which has suffered greatly from the recent rash of new, out-of-town shopping malls. The Dimanches de la Canebière are initially intended to run for a year, but they may become more permanent if funding permits.
The Canebière also brightens up each year in December with a Santons Fair that boasts dozens of stalls selling little figurines for traditional provençal Christmas cribs.
Duck down a side street on the right at the top of the Canebière (by the Crédit Agricole bank) to discover one of Marseille's best street markets, the colourful, bustling, mainly North African market of Noailles.
Also just off the Canebière is the Opera House, built in 1787 but razed by a fire in 1919 which left only the main walls and neo-classical colonnade intact; the front façade and interior were rebuilt in Art Deco style.
The exterior of the Opera House has been sparklingly restored, though the interior is in need of complete restoration; when completed, it will be magnificent. The company has a spritely programme, which includes new commissions as well as the usual popular favourites. The Opera House is also the home of the Marseille Ballet.
On the first Wednesday of each month at noon, a short theatrical show is staged in front of the Marseille Opera by the company Sirènes et Midi Net to coincide with the monthly testing of the city's emergency warning siren.
The nearby Cours d'Estienne d'Orves has gone through many incarnations. From the 16th to the 18th centuries the whole area was a series of boatsheds known as Les Arcenaulx where slaves built and fitted out galley ships.
In the 19th century, it became a pretty canal popular with artists and fishermen, but this was filled in in 1927. An unsightly high-rise car-park was erected on the site in the 1960s.
After a campaign by local activists, it was in turn demolished in 1987 to make way for an underground car-park, which is one of the most convenient places to park in the city centre.
Above ground, the Cours d'Estienne d'Orves is now a pedestrian precinct stocked with chic fashion boutiques like Agnès B, numerous restaurants and bars and, occasionally in winter, a skating rink.
At the far end of the quai de Rive Neuve, near the Fort Saint Nicolas, is Marseille's main theatre, La Criée, a building adapted from the city's former covered fish market (the façade, with its big arched glass window, is original).
How to get there: Metro line 1 (stop: Vieux Port).
Where to eat and drink: On and just behind the quai du Port, Le Café des Epices, On Dine and Vinonéo are all recommended restaurants, as is the excellent Café des Méditerranées just round the corner by the MuCEM. For seafood, head to Chez Roger at 28 quai du Port.
For those with deep pockets, Le Miramar has a long-standing reputation for its (very pricey) bouillabaisse, while the Marseille superchef Lionel Lévy runs the gastronomic restaurant at the five-star InterContinental Hôtel Dieu. It has a Michelin star, as does the (to our mind somewhat over-rated) Une Table, au Sud.
La Caravelle and La Samaritaine are the essential bars. If you're on the quai de Rive Neuve, try 29 Place aux Huiles to eat, Les Arcenaulx for tea or a meal in a relaxing, book-lined dining-room (don't miss the display of old photographs of the arsenals at the entrance to the next-door bookshop) and the Bar de la Marine, Marcel Pagnol's old haunt, for a pastis.